Skip to main content


Porus The Great

  King Porus of Punjab A great battle took place in 326 BC at the banks of river Jhelum in West Punjab between Alexander , the greek-macedonian king and Porus , the king of Punjab. This battle halted the eastward advance of the Greek-Macedinian army and eventually led to the downfall of the Alexander's empire. So devastating was the psychological impact of this battle that the greek soldiers refused to fight and demanded to go back home. Alexander had ambitious goal of conquering India, but the battle against Porus curbed his aspirations and he retured back to Persia a dejected man. Alexander's Invasion of India Alexander crossed Hindukush mountains via the Khyber Pass in 327 BC after defeating the Indo-Persian satrapy of Gandhara . Next was the great kingdom of Taxila . Its King Ambhi submitted without offering any resistance to Alexander. Next target for Alexander was King Abhisares , the king of Abhira including the region of Jammu and Kashmir. Abhisares also sent his ambass

Understanding Kashmir

Kashmir Valley Kashmir has been at the heart of a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan ever since the two nations separated in 1947. Both claim Kashmir. In fact, Kashmir is divided into three political entities: Jammu & Kashmir under India (J&K) Azad kashmir or Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) China Occupied Aksai Chin (South Tibet) Kashmir Political Geograpy Bollywood movie - Kashmir Files (2022) has re-ignited this debate. The film is produced by pro-BJP Zee Studios, written and directed by Vivek Agnihotri, and represents a fictional story line about the murders and final exodus of Kashmiri Hindus from the Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley during 1990s.  Origin of Kashmir In the  Rajatarangini , a history of Kashmir written by  Kalhana  in the 12th century, it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was a big lake, When the lake drained out through the passage of Varah-Moola (Baramula), the people began to settle there as it was a peaceful heaven for spiritual and academi

To paint the Gurus or Not

Painting Sikh Gurus I am going to discuss a topic that is very close to my heart. Should we have paintings of the Gurus at our homes or Gurdwaras or not? You may have a strong opinion on this topic but lets rationally look at all aspects on this issue before we form a polarized view. Why the Fuss About? Idolizing the mythological Gods and historical individuals have been an age old tradition in India. The sculptures and paintings of Hindu Gods, Jain Tirthankars, and Buddha are revered in temples as well as at peoples homes.  In Islam, however it's an absolute prohibition - Muhammad, or any of the other prophets of Islam, should not be pictured in any way. Pictures - as well as statues. Historically though Mohammad has been painted by Muslim artists during the earlier period of Islam. At what point then, did depictions of Muhammad become Haram, or forbidden? The advent of mass-circulation print media in the 18th century posed a challenge and a global ban was dictated to the devouts.

Guru Tegh Bahadur and Religious Tolerence

 Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur made a poetic statement in response to the terror tactics of Aurangzeb , the religiously fanatic Mughal emperor of Delhi and the verse is preserved on the page 1427 of Sri Guru Granth Sahib : "He who doesnot instill fear in anyone, and does not allow anyone to terrorize him, is the Enlightened Soul." These words of wisdom by the 9th Nanak , must have echoed through the streets of old Delhi during the dark evening of 11th November, 1675 when Guru was beheaded by the order of the emperor. His severed head and the torso was left on the execution platform for the people of India to witness and fear.   The Gauntlet The Guru reresented the case of Kashmiri Pundits who were forcibly converted to Islam en masse. He laid down the gauntlet in front of the mighty Mughal empire. If they can convice the Guru to accept the  Islamic Da’Wa or the declaration of the supremacy of Islam, the entire population of Kashmiri Pundit will convert. When proselytic attempts b