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Lost Cities of Punjab - Ancestral Home of Punjabi Communities

Punjabi Ignorance

We, the Punjabis historically have not been documenting our own history. The Muslim Punjabis have almost forgotten their genetic ancestry and now try to connect their gene pool to the Arab aristocracy of Sayeds and Qureshis. The Pakistan government ignorantly names its missiles after the Islamic invaders who dispossessed their ancestors from their land. The Hindu Punjabis have written off their own ancestors, warriors kings, and Gurus and relate more to the Middle-India heroes such as Rama, Krishna, and Shivaji, The Sikhs have done a better job in staying connected to their roots but their historical reach is limited just to the Sikh period. Punjab history has to be taken as a whole, and that includes, Adivasis, Indus valley, Aryan Khatris, Kushans, Rajputs, Gujjars, Jatts, Islamic invaders, Sikh period, British rule, and the post independence era.
Trinity of Punjabi Pride
What's the Problem?
So what? The results of this ignorance is astounding. We never wrote our own history and our recent generations are oblivious of their roots. They grew up reading their history as written by others - Chinese, Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Mughals, British, and the Leftist or Hindutva leaning Indian scholars, or pro-Islamic Pakistanis.

Guru Nanak gave us the message of Ek Ongkar - One Creator for all Humankind. “Give me not a knife but a needle. I want to sew together, not stab,” sang Sheikh Farid. But we Punjabis didn't follow their wisdom and slit each others throat in some form of religious frenzy. In this process we lost our common heritage, culture, and history, We forgot the history of our own land in which our ancestors are buried or cremated.
Sons of Punjab Soil

Lost Cities of Punjab and Sindh

How many Punjabis and Sindhis know that they are the descendants of one of the most advanced civilization? The Indus Valley Civilization flourished in the basins of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Sindh and Punjab and then spreading along a system of five rivers that coursed one of the most fertile land in the world. 

Sacred Hindu scriptures Vedas were composed here. Panini defined the grammar of Sanskrit on this land and Patanjali  wrote Yoga Sutras in Punjab. The descendants of most of the Hindu Gods that all of India worships are the Khatris of Punjab, the only true Kshatriyas. Jainism and Nath traditions have roots in Punjab. Buddhism flourished here in Taxila, and a secular Sufism challenged the fascist Sharia in Punjab.

Lets nw look at some historic cities of Punjab and how these cities are related to Punjabi communities, otherwise known as cases or Last names.

Harappa

Mohenjo-daro in Sindh and Harappa in Punjab, emerged in 2600 BC along the Sindh River valley. Harappa is an archaeological site in West Punjab, about 15 mi west of Sahiwal. Harappa was mainly an urban city sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce, the latter including trade with Mesopotamia. main characteristics included "differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, residential irrigation and drainage system, and fortified administrative or religious centers."
Harrapa site on the banks of Sindh river
The weights and measures of Harappa were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations. Distinctive seals were used, among other applications, perhaps for identification of property and shipment of goods. Sindhis and Punjabis Aroras are most likely the direct descendants of Indus Valley Civilization.

Aror

 Aror is the ancestral town of the Arora Community. Aror is the medieval name of the city of Rohri, Sindh was once the capital of Sindh.  It was captured and sacked by Arab invader Muhammad bin Qasim in 711 AD. Arab historians recorded the city's name as Al-rur, Al-ruhr and Al Ror.
Ruins of Aror in Sindh
 The city was totally destroyed by a powerful earthquake in 962 AD triggering the migration of its residents, the Aroras from Sindh to West Punjab.

Chhab

Just as Aror is the ancestral home of Arora community, Chhab is the ancestral home of the Chhabra community. It is located in along the banks of Sindh river in the Jand Tehsil of Attock District in West Punjab.
Chhab Railway Station
This site was overrun by the Khattak tribe of Pashtun invaders triggering mass migration of Chhabras to Sindh and West Punjab.

Gandhara

Gandhāra was an ancient region in the NW Frontier basin The region was at the confluence of the Kabul and Swat rivers, bounded by the Sulaiman Mountains on the west and the Indus River on the east. Gandhara's existence is attested since the time of the Rigveda (c. 1500 – c. 1200 BC), as well as the Zoroastrian Avesta, which mentions it as Vaēkərəta, the sixth most beautiful place on earth created by Ahura Mazda.
Gandhara People
Gandhara was founded by the Druhyu prince Gandhara who was the son of King Angara of Druhyu Dynasty. King Nagnajit of Gandhara was defeated and killed by Rama's brother Bharata. It gets mention in Mahabharata as Gandhari, the queen of K uru dynasty was the daughter of the king of Gandhara. Her brother Shakuni, the Gandhara prince  was the political adviser of Kauravas against the Pandavas during the Kurukshetra War.
Gandhara King
Gandhara was one of 16 Mahajanapadas (large urban areas) of ancient India mentioned in Buddhist sources such as Anguttara Nikaya. It was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 327 BC, it subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire. Gandharais ancestral home of Khatri last name Kandhari.

Kandahar province of Afghanistan is sometimes mistakenly associated with Gandhara. However, Kandahar is instead etymologically related to "Alexandria" a city created by Alexander.

Taxila

Taxila is the home of Kukhrain Khatri - the tribes of Kushrain or Kushan Khatris include - Anand, Bhasin, Chadha, Chandhok, Ghai, Ghandhoke, Kapoor, Kohli, Sabharwal, Sawhney/Sahni, Sethi, and Suri.

Rama's brother Bharata's 1st son Taksha established Takshasila (Taxila) in Gandhara on the banks of river Sindhu and 2nd son Pushkara established Pushkaravati (Pushkar) in Gandharva tribe on the banks of river Saraswati (Sirsa) in Haryana-Rajasthan border after defeating and killing its king Sailusha. Bharata's descendants ruled this kingdom afterwards. King Suvala was the ,father of Gandhari and Shakuni. After Mahabharata Shakuni's son was the last ruler of Bharata dynasty was defeated by Arjuna for Yudhishthira's Aswamedha Yagna.
Bodhistva from Taxila
Gandhara's culture peaked during the reign of the great Kushan king Kanishka the Great (128–151). The cities of Taxila (Takṣaśilā) at Sirsukh and Peshawar were built. Peshawar became the capital of a great empire stretching from Gandhara to Central Asia. Kanishka was a great patron of the Buddhist faith and Taxila University was known in the region as the center of Buddhist knowledge. Khukhrain Khatris are descendant of Kushans.

Wahika

Wahika or Vahika is an ancient region located near Rawalpindi and home of the Wahi Katris. Its name in Sanskrit suggests a spring garden valley. The town of Wah is located between Hassan Adbal and Taxila. The natives of Wah were annihilated by the Epthalite or Abdali Pashtoon tribe and Wahi Khatris are their descendants.
Map of Wah
Another place related to the Wahis is Takht-i-Bahi (Throne of the water spring"), which is an archaeological site of an ancient Buddhist monastery in Mardan, NW Frontier. The site is considered among the most imposing relics of Buddhism in all of and has been "exceptionally well-preserved.
Takht-i-Bahi in Mardan

Bahlika

The home of Behl Khatris is the ancient kingdom of Bahlika, more commonly known as Balkh in Afghanistan.  Puranic evidence locates Bahlikas in Uttarapatha or North. The Brahmanda Purana attests that river Chaksu (Oxus or Amu Darya) flowed through the land of Bahlavas (Bahlikas).

King Bahlika had participated in the Mahabharata war with one Akshauhini (division) army of Bahlika soldiers and had sided with the Kauravas against the Pandavas.
Ruins of Ancient Bahlika
Balkh is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about 12 mi northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif. It was a center of excellence for Buddhism and had close links with Persia as Zoroaster, the founder of the Persian Zoroastrian religion was originally from Balkh. 

After defeating the Persians, the Arabs overran Balkh in 715 AD. In 1220 Genghis Khan sacked Balkh, butchered its inhabitants and leveled all the buildings  – the suffering inflicted on Balkh again in the 14th century by Tamerlane, the Turk. The surviving Behls migrated to West Punjab.

Madra

Madra is the name of an ancient region and its inhabitants, located in the north-west division of the ancient Indian sub-continent. The Madra Kingdom's capital is located as the plains between rivers Ravi and Chenab in the Majha region of West Punjab.
Katas Raj Temple in West Punjab
Ancient epic, the Mahabharata that describes the armies of the Madra Kingdom led by King Shalya, marching from ancient Northwest Punjab to Haryana in support of the Pandavas. His sister Madri was the second queen of Pandu and mother of two Pandavs - Nakul and Sehdev. He however fought the battle on the the side of Kauravas against his own nephews.

Arora clan of Madan originate from the region.

Kaikeya

Kekayas or Kaikeyas is the ancestral home of Khatri clan Kakkars. They were an ancient people attested to have been living in north-western Punjab—between Gandhara and the Beas river since remote antiquity. The Kingdom of Kekaya was founded by Kekaya who was the father of Kaikeyi, the step mother of Rama.
Ruins of Amb Temple in Khusab, West Punjab
The Kekayas are said to have occupied the land now comprised by three districts of Jhelum, Shahpur and Gujerat in West Punjab. Ramayana lists the Kekaya metropolis as Rajagriha or Girivraja. which A. Cunningham has identified with Girjak in Khushab Tehsil on river Jhelum in the Jhelum district.

Sagala

Sagala is likely the city of Sakala  mentioned in the Mahabharata, a Sanskrit epic of ancient India, later mentioned by Greek accounts as Sagala. The city may have been inhabited by the Saka, or Scythians, from Central Asia who had migrated into the Subcontinent.

The city was razed in 326 BC during the invasion of Alexander the Great. In the 2nd century BC, Sagala was made capital of the Indo-Greek kingdom by Menander I. Menander embraced Buddhism after extensive debating with a Buddhist monk, as recorded in the Buddhist text Milinda Panha.

The city was visited by the Chinese traveler Xuan Zang in 633, who recorded the city's name as She-kie-lo. Xuan Zang reported that the city had been rebuilt approximately 2.5 miles, away from the city ruined by Alexander the Great.
Sign at Saigolabad, West Punjab

Saigolabad (Urdu: سہگل آباد) is a small town in Chakwal District, Punjab, Pakistan. Khatri clan Sehgal (also pronounced Sahgal Saigal, and Saigol) originate from Sagal. 
Sangla Hill, West Punjab

Sangala

The city was said to have been located in the region between the Chenab and Ravi rivers, now known as Sangla Hill. Punjabi bania community of Singla are related to Sangala. Some historians erroneously link Sagala with Sialkot.

Kalra Khasa

Kalra Khasa (Urdu: کا لرہ خا صہ) is a village situated near GT Road Industrial area in the district of Gujrat, Pakistan. Punjabi Arora clan Kalra originates from this village.

Vehari - Chopra

Vehari, correctly spelled Vihari (وِہاڑی), is a city in the West Punjab located about 100 km (62 mi) from the historical city of Multan. Vehari District was an agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan Khatri clan of Chopra. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered the city. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs occupied Vehari District. During the period of Sikh rule, Vehari district increased in population and importance. 

Chopra Village, Vehari Tehsil, West Punjab

Incidently, Chopra is a village in Vihari distract owing the orgin of Chpra Khatri clan. The fanous Sikh aristocrat family of Chopras came from the region. Sawanmal and later his son Mulraj Chopra were appointed the governor of Multan region that included Vihari.

Dinga

Dinga is ancestral home of Dhingra clan of Aroras. It is a city in District Gujrat, in West Punjab.It lies between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab. Dinga is about 62 mi from the India-Pakistan border.
Ancient Temple in Dinga, West Punjab

Mong

Mong is the ancestral home of Arora clan Mongia. It is a small town in the Mandi Bahauddin District in West Punjab province of Pakistan.

The origin of lentils Moong is associated with this region.

Multan

Multan city located in the South West Punjab  is one of the oldest cities in South Asia, Ancient name of Multan was Mool-Sthan which in Sankrit means the "origin". It is said that when Alexander was fighting for Multan city, a poisoned arrow struck him, making him ill and eventually leading to his death. The exact place where Alexander was hit by the arrow can be seen in the old city premises. The noted Chinese traveler Huen Tsang also visited Multan in 641.

In the 8th century, Muhammad bin Qasim of Basra led the Arabs on a  Gazi religious zeal to conquest of India and took Multan after conquering Sindh. He destroyed the water-course; upon which the inhabitants, oppressed with thirst, surrendered. He massacred the men capable of bearing arms, but the children and women were taken captive.

The most important place of the Hindu period was the "Surya Mandir". It was named after Sun god Aditiya, which is was shortened to Band even Ayt as in the case of Aditwara (or Aytwar) for Sunday. The ruins of Sun Mandir are located near the High Court of Multan.
Ruins of Sun Temple, Multan
Muhammad bin Qasim chose not to destroy the temple and Hindu pilgrims continued to visit it. Qasim took 6,000 priests of the Sun temple as captives most converted them to Islam. One Brahman of Multan confessed to Muhammad bin Qasim about a treasure hidden beneath the fountain. Muhammad bin Qasim found 330 chests of treasure containing 13300 mounds gold. Entire treasure was shifted via Debal to Basra on ships.

Whenever a Hindu king would plan to attack Multan, Qasim would threaten to destroy the temple and it's idol. In the 10th Century, Al-Biruni, regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era, also visited Multan and gave a glowing description of the temple.

The temple was finally destroyed in the 10th Century by Turk Mahmud of Ghazni. Eventually this temple was also abandoned and it turned into ruins.

In 1810, the temple was rebuilt when the area was under the rule of Sikhs. Alexander Cunningham described this temple as it was seen in 1853 by him and wrote that: “It was a square brick building with some very finely carved wooden pillars for the support of the roof.
Ruins of Sun Temple, Multan
A numbers of ancient Hindu temples have disappeared or are now occupied by land grabbers. These include Sun Temple on Suraj Kund Road, Narsingapuri and Prahladpuri Temples.

References

https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/variety/punjabiyat-that-defies-partition/article22993211.ece
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aror
https://www.dawn.com/news/1152687
http://chhabhistory.blogspot.com/2013/07/attock-khurd.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xuanzang
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Tang_Records_on_the_Western_Regions
https://archive.org/details/cu31924071132769/page/n219/mode/2up
https://web.archive.org/web/20130116083307/http://www.iep.utm.edu/xuanzang/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhara
https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.103863/2015.103863.Hindu-History-bc3000-To-1200-Ad_djvu.txt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takht-i-Bahi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahlikas
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madra
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kekaya
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagala
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinga
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Multan
https://www.sid-thewanderer.com/2017/11/sun-temple-multan-pakistan.html

Comments

  1. Informative article but I cannot find the name of the author.

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    1. Interesting. I have observed over the years that a majority of us (not only Punjabis) like to claim to be someone else 😀

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    2. Wonderful. please let me have the details. i would like to buy the book.

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    3. Where would you place Marwaha? Married to Gurus & affiliated with Khukrains. Or are they closer to Vahis? singhkayjay3363@gmail.com

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    4. Interpretative history.Some verified corraborated historical facts stringed together under a heading.On critical analysis substantial averments would show up as conjectural eg Khatri sub caste names linked to sites or places.
      Mere indexing of sources does not establish veracity.
      Author cannot claim full historical accuracy and such articles should be qualified

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    5. Please add more details about KHANNA, KAPOOR, MEHROTRA, TANDON, SETH etc. My self also khatri and belong to ढाई घर के खन्ना।

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    6. Yes. I too wpuld like to buy this master piece.

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    7. Very interesting..
      Like to buy the book if available

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    8. Buddha insisted on teaching dhamma in the common man’s language rather than Sanskrit ( because he didn’t want the Brahmins to control the narrative ), just like Nanak and the rest of the Sikh Gurus taught in Punjabi / Gurmukhi to reach out to the common man and to break the monopoly of the priestly class

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    9. Thank you Arv Singh.
      This is so exhilarating and exciting to read ... being a son of Punjab has always been special to me ... to me it is the land of the five rivers and is a treasure trove of great history ... one day I pray ( probably not during my life time ), the people of Punjab once again become one ... regardless of our religion
      To me my land is my religion ... and we become part of the land ... the Himalayas and the mighty rivers which flow through this land my Gods and Goddesses
      The Ancient Civilisations, even before the Aryan , they all add to my bloodline ... and I know for sure most of the Vedas too were written on my soil and are part of my soul as well
      Please also shed more light on the Jatt Tribes ... I would love to know more about them as well
      My mother is part of the Sandhu clan, my father a Lehl ( and he’d tell me the specialty of the Lehls was that wherever they went , they always called their village Lehl or Lehal or Lehli )
      If there is a book I would love to purchase that as well

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  2. I strongly protest that Pakistani people look towards Arbas to identify themselves in terms of their ancesters or ancestral places. We are children of Indus and Ghandhara civilizations like you and still take pride in identifying ourselfs in terms of the two civilizations. Moreover, we still feel attached to Indian soil our fathers, grandfathers migrated from in 1947. Love to visit those places and meet up their lost surviving friends, relatives and their descendents. Please correct your myopic perception.
    With regards and love,
    Arif Taj,
    Islamabad (Pakistan)

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    1. Arif Sahib, great to hear that. We are all children of the same mother if you keep going back on generations. Appreciate you keeping in touch with your ancestry and I have many Pakistani friends who take pride in their ancestors like Porus, Kanishka, Jayapala Janjua, Jasrat Khokhar, Dulla Bhatti to name a few. I can guarantee you that new generations of Pakistanis have not even heard of these names. Its is also true that a large majority of Pakistanis sketch their lineage to Sayeds and Qureshi with Arab background. Renaming of Lyallpur after King Faisal of Saudi Arabia as Faisalabad, Gadddafi stadium, and names of missiles after the invaders is a shameful acts.

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    2. Interesting. I have observed over the years that a majority of us (not only Punjabis) like to claim to be someone else 😀

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    3. Should u decide to visit India, I'll be honoured to personally take u around to all those places in Punjab, that u would like to visit

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    4. Arv Singh - are you the author of this article?

      Well researched and well written. We should preserve our rich history.
      And add more to the lineage of some other clans...

      Malhotras & Mehrotras
      Mehras
      Bawejas & Anejas
      Bhatias
      Chitkaras
      Sidhu
      Dhillon
      Bajwa
      Gills & Garewals

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    5. Grt idea.
      Same here as my ancestors are from Pakistan and last known to me they are from Pindi Bhatian. In case some can share the pics of Pindi Bhatian pls help. Like to share with my family

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    6. Arif, it is the truth. A lot of my pakistani friends wwould like to be connected with arabs and mongols instead of their hindu blood.

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    7. Well said Arif. Many presume a lot and create more differences between punjabis.

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    8. Arif, you have to see the truth. Your people think of themselves as Turks, Mongols or Arabs, whereas the truth is that your ancestors were Hindus who were converted by these very people. But youeulogise these invaders so much who have nothing to do with your race or culture or civikizxation that you name your missiles after them viz Ghori, Ghaznavi etc .The fact is these very arabas and Turks don't consider you as real Muslims. You just have to see how you people are treated int hese countries.

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    9. Saini's history no5 incorporated

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    10. This is an excellent blog very.nicely presented the historical legacy.i recomend it's reading and publicity

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    11. Sir. You have mentioned many Surinames, but missed Sagoo

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    12. Really enjoyed reading your article, have always felt, we Punjabis from both sides of the border should take more pride in our roots and language instead of looking east or west, depending on which side of the border we are. This is the cradle of the sub continental civilization

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  3. Well researched and well written. We must preserve our rich history.

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  4. The city was totally destroyed by a powerful earthquake in 962 AD.

    Name of the earthquake was ghazwa e hind.

    Btw sir dont write timeline of 1800bc to rig ved.

    Today many modern research have established its fate to atleast 3500 bc. Eatliest estimates to 12000bce, short dryas ice age.

    There is a 2 crore prize for proving aryan invasion myth. Rig ved mahabharat harappan period are contemporary.
    Rig ved being older(pre rig vedic era).

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    1. The earthquake is well documented in chronicles and it hit the city after it was plundered and ransacked by the Arab invaders who came with the motive of Gazwa-e-Hind meaning the religious conquest of India. Rig Veda is ancient but we have to have archaeological evidence to support its existence before 3,800 years (1800 BC) in Punjab. The Indo-Aryans did not reach the land of Punjab till 1800 BC and the region had a flourishing Indus Valley civilization that predates Vedic influence. But I concede that Rig Veda is much older than 3,800 years as its earlier chapters were composed in an older form of Sanskrit, most probably in Europe or Steppes of Kazakhistan. The "Out of India" theory propagated by some Indian scholars has been categorically challenged by genetic testing by a group of Indian and International scholars.

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    2. Please read dating by nilesh nilkanth oak on Ramayan MAHABHARAT n rigveda !

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  5. I extend a warm note of appreciation and applause to the author and researcher of this article. To add, all the Chopra clan Khatris owe their origin to a historical hub of civilization called Rahon near Nawanshahr, Punjab, India. Similary, Jejon in District Una, Himachal Pradesh was a very developed centre of civilization a few centuries ago. We should encourage people of various religions and sects to discover their family trees. Almost every body living in South East Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and States like Sindh, both the Punjabs is great grand son or daughter of common ancestors who were Hindus. All Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Christians and others living in this geographical region are descendants of the same fore fathers who were definitely Hindus. Once this is researched, conceived, understood and accepted, it will definitely promote solidarity, peace and harmony between the people practising different religions in the region.

    - Dr Rohit Shekhar Sharma

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    1. Wonder what does the word Hindu mean, or stand for? Were we all Worshiping a pantheon of same gods in the same manner? Can all our ancestors before the inflow of outsiders in the sub continent following the same religious faiths and modes? One wonders where has the logic gone?

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    2. I am not a historian just a speck on this eating who was born in Rawalpindi and then only three years old at the time of partition grew up in India listening to our parents stories some very beautiful and some very nostalgic . u see we belonged to that place for generations and our parents use to actually weep for their homeland which was left behind forever .
      I agree with Dr. Mohit and feel very strongly for peace, harmony and solidarity because as he says we are descendants of the same fore fathers irrespective of the religion . What we r all going through at a time like this lets all unite and work together as one .Dr. Mohit in the article lot of surnames r mentioned could u give me some clarity on where the Trehans and Nanads came from?

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  6. Very informative article. It is extremely critical to first learn and then preserve our rich history and colorful cultural heritage. I see 2 types of Punjabis in our society, firstly the intellectual ones, who know some bit of their history, they take pride in being what they are, honour their first trait of being a Punjabi I.e the rich and sweet Punjabi language and therefore speak and propagate the language with a sense of pride and duty irrespective of which part of the world they live in and also the religious background they come from. Then we have the second class of Punjabis who are intellectually challenged and therefore are a confused lot. Some feel their religious inclination is X and therefore their mother tongue is Hindi, some feel their religion is Y and therefore Urdu is what they should be speaking, some feel they are Z and their language too is Punjabi however perhaps X and Y are doing the right thing by throwing their mother (Punjabi Language) out of the window and therefore they too are misled, and therefore all these individuals are prisoners of their midset. In my view there is one thing that unites the Punjabi community across the world and that is our Language diminishing all hurdles of religion, caste, creed, country, etc etc... therefore we must strictly speak only Punjabi at home with our kids and ensure they embrace their true culture with admiration and pride and also carryforward and enhance our rich heritage. We need to be PUNJABIs first and Hindus/Muslims/Sikhs/Christians/Jains etc etc later :)

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    1. Absolutely right, Gur Rajan ji! How can anyone ascribe one's language to the religion one was born into, and thus disowning one's social heritage?

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  7. You've associated Takht e bahi with Wahis ...whats the connect & source of your information ? Thanks

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    1. SW, Takht-E-Bahi is a world renown Buddhist site located near Mardan in NW Frontier. The town of Wah is on the other side of Mardan. All this area was part of ancient kingdom of Wahika. I would know because my wife's maiden name is Wahi and her family originate from this region. "Wah" or "Wahika" is Sanskrit name for the region as mentioned in ancient Indian scripture as old as 2,500 years. The Buddhists did not adopt Sanskrit (or were prevented by Brahmins) and instead used Pali script for their spiritual writings. Most of the word vocabulary is similar to Sanskrit with Pali words having a phonological transformation. For example, the Sanskrit “ava” is reduced in Pali to “o” as Sanskrit avatāra is written as otāra and Nirrvana is pronounced Nibbaana. Similarly consonant "v" is replaced by "b" as in the case of "Vaisakh" in Sanskrit to "Baisakh" in Pali. Applying the same logic, the term, "Takht-E-Wahi" was transformed to "Takht-e-Bahi" in Buddhist period. Bahi or Wahi in local dialect is referred to water spring that are plenty to find in this region. The famous Sikh site of Punja Sahib is located in this region too. This was where Guru Nanak gave advice to a local Muslim cleric Wali Kandhari who had claimed ownership of a spring and not sharing its water with the locals. The ancient name "Wahika" for this region means the "Garden of Springs". Please read more here: https://www.dawn.com/news/1185519

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    2. very intresting to know deeply especially Wahis. Welcome bro being in our family tree.

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    3. very intresting to know deeply especially Wahis. Welcome bro being in our family tree.

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  8. Good article and good to know that historically we are same the cast creed and religions are just flavors added in the different times for different reasons good or bad just keep knowledge and keep unity of humanity close to heart

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  9. Very informative article, I have translated it in Punjabi for Punjabi (Gurmukhi) readers.

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  10. It is enriching to know one's identity, to know the roots, to link our ancestors' region, to go back to the townships that are nothing more than ruins now.. This article will help us preserve our history. Our lineage. Our sense of belonging to that bygone era..!! Applaud the efforts of the author and wish that it gets place in curriculums for the present generation to give them a ground to stand upon...

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  11. It is enriching to know about our lineage, our region of inhabitation, our work cultures of that era... This article has very nicely brought forth our ancestral roots.. much useful for our younger generation to redefine their cultural heritage on the globe. Applaud the efforts of the author.

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  12. It is enriching to know about our lineage, our region of inhabitation, our work cultures of that era... This article has very nicely brought forth our ancestral roots.. much useful for our younger generation to redefine their cultural heritage on the globe. Applaud the efforts of the author.

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  13. The information is very important and should reach all the Punjabis to their past history. This is part of history is being sidelined by Pakistani muslims and Hindutava for es on our side of the country. Punjabis have been fighting Invaders since ancient times they have lost their old history and land due to partition. Next generation will not be able to understand all this tragedy

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  14. Would you be able to shed any light on the Bhatti name and its origins and their history? I ask because I belong to the Bhatia family name and would be interested in any information you may have found.

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    1. Meet the Bhatias: Small community, big achievements
      Bhatias

      Most of them are from Kutch, but they are distinct from the Gujaratis. The Bhatias, a small community by numbers, is awe-inspiringly big on achievements, finds out Marisha Karwa

      It won't be far-fetched to say that they've bank-rolled everyone from the British East India Company to Middle Eastern Sheikhs, the Sultans of African nations and modern-day start-ups. But for all their deft skills as money-lenders, traders and entrepreneurs, the Bhatia community was once a fierce, sword-wielding, warrior clan.
      "The Bhatias were originally kshatriyas," informs Haridas Raigaga, honorary secretary of the Global Bhatia Foundation. "They had conquered lands that today constitute Afghanistan, Pakistan, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and parts of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh."
      Mystery shrouds the origins of the Bhatia community and as a result several theories abound: that their dynasty ruled Magadha between BC 578-447 (Lassen), that they descended from a common Yadav (Yadu or Jadon) ancestor, who was led by Lord Krishna, that they are the followers of Bhaira Raja, the king of Bhatiah in Multan, etc.
      The general consensus is that

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    2. Let me add some information from my research on Bhatias from Punjab. First, they are different than the Bhatti Rajputs of Punjab and Rajasthan. They are also different from Bhaati of Gujarat. It will be a mistake to mix the three groups.

      But one thing is common between the three groups - Bhatia, Bhatti, and Bhati. Alll three originate from a region called Bhatiana, bordering Punjab, Sindh, and Rajasthan. Bhatiana was conquered by Arab Jehadi, Mohammad Bin Qasim and burned to ground. Its natives migrated to Punjab and Rajasthan and the Bhatiyani dialect of Punjabi language eventually became extinct. The Bhatias are a composite group urban clans that assimilated in the Punjab social structure. They are similar to Khatris and Aroras but they are not Kukhrains (Khatris from Rawalpindi region). Intermarriages between Bhatias, Khatris, and Aroras are common these days but in ancient times these three clans kept to themselves. Bhattis are Rajputs and have their stringhold in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan and Bhattinda, Punjab. Pindi Bhattian is the village of Dulla Bhatti, the folk legend. Bhatis are another clan of Rajputs from Gujarat. Bhatada or Bhaats are also rom Bhatiana who practiced singing, palm reading, fortune telling, and ear cleaning etc, by hawking in Punjab after the destruction of Bhatiana.

      The names tells a lot of the origin of these last names - Bhatia, Bhatti, Bhaati, and Bhatada communities.

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  15. Very informative.Will share this artical with other intrested.

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  16. Very informative.Will share this artical with other intrested.

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  17. this is great brother...thanks for adding to our knowledge...but will crossverify from other side...

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  18. There is no mention of the Malhotras or Mehras. Where did they come from

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    1. I would add ... Malhotra are the Malha clan of Khatri from West Punjab. They fought a fierce battle with Alexander on his exit journey where he was seriously injured. The name suggests Malhotra are the northern (Uttara) wing of the Malhi clan. Need more research on Mehras.

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  19. Good research work. There are other Khatri casts like Lamba, Bindra, Puri, Gujral etc. If research can be done on these casts. Also there are number of Jat Sikh casts like Kang, Bajwa, Dhillon, Sidhu, Sandhu, Gill, Garewal etc these all belong to Punjab, some research on their origin please.

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    1. Major GUJRAL THERE IS a book by B.s.Dahiya.The name of the book is Jats The Ancient Rulers.Please read it if you can find it or you can get in touch with me. Book is full of surprises. To understand clan names you have to know the History of central asia.Chinese called kangs kiangnu and they had empire in central asia.Their ancient location was near caspian sea.In pakistan Gujrals are classified as jats.Ican give you lot of information but here it is not possible.This book gives information about Khatris too.Major sahib if you are not able to find this book and keen to know answers to your questions please get in touch.My Phone no is 9876125035

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    2. Major Gujral, please see my reserach on the Jatt clans of Punjab. Gujrals are Khatris and have their origin in the Gojra city 31 mles from Lyallpur (Now Faislabad). The original name was Gojarwal that overtime became Gujral.

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  20. Enriching! History is highly enriching soil which keeps on producing delectable fruits decade after decades compelling us not to make facts permanent. Till today's we haven't had a verdict on Aryans came east from West or other way round.Sanskrit-German cousinship r fuel this East-West argument. I have my FINGERSPITZEGEFUEHL(fingertip feeling), we were split somewhere in midpoint,with an AUFWIEDERSEHEN, SEE YOU AGAIN, BUDDIES.

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  21. Already submitted but cannot spot it.

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  22. Very informative and knowledgeable piece produced after a thorough research. But I couldn't find roots of famous surnames like Bedi and Sodhis..Any inputs?

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    1. By using the Authors logic of Sanskrit/ Pali language..
      Bedi would have been Vedi, Ved is Brahman caste of people who had the knowledge of 3 Veds.
      I am assuming you asked this Question for a particular reason.
      The Answer is ..
      All Pandits are Brahmans, but all Brahmans are not Pandits.
      Too much power was given to Pandits in the past, the result is this Khichidi, what we see today.
      Question was asked to a Pandit, who did not have the knowledge, which lead to divine journey, and eventually to your question.

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    2. Ved is not a Brahmin caste but ancient Hindu scriptures that the Aryans brought with them when they arrived in Punjab. Who studies the Vedas are referred to as Vedi. A Brahmin who studied tw Veda is Dwivedi, three Veda reader is Trivedi, and four Veda reader is Chaturvedi. Only the two groups within the Aryans were permitted to read Veda - Brahmins and Kshatriyas or Khatris in Punjabi dialect. Bedis are Khatris whose ancesters studied the Vedas. You are correct that the brahmins restricted the others to read Veda.

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  23. Eye opening for many people ...

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  24. Commodore Ranbir TalwarApril 27, 2020 at 8:28 PM

    We are Khatris from Jhang with surname Talwar. Have you done any research on the Jhang Maghiana area. Sad that my children have lost total contact with their ancestry due to the partition. They are now Hindi and English speaking. I can still speak the Dialect of Punjabi spoken in Jhang. Very sad that we have lost our roots. Would be delighted if you could throw some light on Jhang and its inhabitants.Thank you for a very well researched and informative article.

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    1. Wonderful to read that you're able to speak and preserve the original dialect

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  25. Very informative and nice article..Hope people return to their roots.

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  26. बहूत खूब खत्री समाज

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  27. Much Informative..Thanks. In nutshell Punjabi history is very old and all Punjabis were Hindus..Later on it was divided in mainly 3 religion s.

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  28. There is no mention of Bhatia clan. There are bhatias from sindh, kutch and NW province. Are they too from same era and region

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    1. More research is needed on Bhatias as these are a distinct grop of people and whats their relation to Bhattis. In my limited research, both Bhatias and Bhatti originated from the regon called Bhatiana. This region was located between Sindh, Bahavalpur, Rajasthan. Arab invasion in 780AD forced natives of Bhatiana to sttle in plains of Punjab.

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    2. Bhatia's have their origin from Bhati kingdom on the border of Gujarat and Sindh. The residents of the kingdom are called Bhatia. Due to Arab invasion they had to flee and spread across Sindh, Gujarat and Punjab and thus we find Punjabi, Sindhi and Gujarati Bhatia's.

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  29. seems all of punjabi history belongs to khatris while the original kshatriyas after whom many parts of punjab like gujranwala, gujrat, bhatinda etc i.e. gurjars have zero history!? nice hijack lol!

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    1. Didn't your school teacher teach you to appreciate everyone. These kind of divisive thoughts have led us to where we are today, divided by caste, religion hatred for our own brethren. History has to be taken in a chronological order. The original settlers of Punjab region were the hunter gatherers when Punjab was still a tropical forest. But you would call them Chamar and Choodhey. Next to settle were the people of Indus valley whom I associate with the Arora communities living along the Sindh river. The Bania community is also associated with this civilization. Then came the Indo-Aryan Khatris and Brahmins. Together they form the four caste system of the Hindu order. Note that Rajputs, Jatts, and Gujjars are not even listed there. Why don't you write a complaint to Manu for exclusion of your caste in that system? Your allegiance to the Hindu caste system shows that you have not forgotten your family's Hindu background. As a Sikh and a descendant of Guru Nanak, I do not believe in the caste system and recognize all Punjabis and humankind as one. However, Punjab history is not complete without the addition of nomad tribes such as Gujjars, as well as Rajputs and Jatts. But these were late arrivals and completed the demography of Punjab. I will do some research and include these communities next. Till then, my friend, just enjoy our common heritage, culture, language, and all those things that bind us together and shun your own prejudices and divisive thoughts.

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    2. No mention of Chopra, khanna, kapoor, suri etc etc

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    3. You posted again! Gujjars or Gurjaras were not Kshatriyas as you falsely claim. Gujjars were a cattle herding nomads who came down to Punjab plains during winters to sell their cattle stocks. They were the one who introduced milk of water buffalo to the Punjabis. Folk songs of Punjab have documented this by depiction of Gujjar girls selling buffalo milk in rural Punjab. A large group of such Gujjars do this journey even now and travel down from Kashmir to Punjab and sell their cattle in winter when it snows in Kashmir. Locations such as Gujarat and Gujranwala in Punjab were Gujjar settlements where the nomads used to set up their caravans every year. One more topic- Bhattinda has nothing to do with Gurjars. It was established by Bhatti Rajput clan as the name indicate. Punjabi Kamboh (Kamboja) are ancient clans who are mentioned in ancient scriptures. Their origin is from central asia and they migrated to Punjab during the Mongol and Turk invasion in their homeland. The first Rajput settlers called themselves Gurjara Pratiharas which means the door keepers. There is a link between Gujjars and Rajputs. But note that Rajputs are NOT Kshatriyas instead, they are the sons of Khatris. This title was given to them by Brahmins who accepted them as the Neo-Khatris after doing a Yagya on Mount Abu. The only TRUE Kshriyas are the Khatris of Punjab ... by now you know the rest of the story.

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    4. Kushans were called guisars or gujars by chinese. But khatris are pure kshatriyas because they have proper gotra or descent from Aryan Rishis which I am not sure about gujars.

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  30. Very in depth research and easy presentation to learn about the rich Indian heritage.

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  31. Feeling blessed. Confirms own earlier ideas of connection with Indus Valley Civilization! 🙏

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  32. Very informative well researched article.

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  33. What aboutany other punjabi like Chopra. ..Gulatis ...Kochher etc

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  34. Well researched article .. do keep adding your further findings. This blog is indeed precious for all Punjabis.

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  35. Very Informative article. I would like to know which part punjabi khatris like Dhawans , Khannas and Malhotras belong to in Paunjab

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  36. good knowing these info.More research shud be done.This be given v wide publicity and valuable inputs be obtained to add to these info.

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  37. Thanks for information about the rich Punjabi Culture. Can you elaborate the origin/history of "Gakhar"
    Regard

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  38. Jinnha disturbed the continuity of this great heritage through communal division.

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  39. It is great learning about our ancient rich culture and heritage and am so happy to read our past which has been do fascinating.A great hard work done by great people who made us feel proud.God bless

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  40. We are Hundal and my family migrated from Hundal village near Sialkot
    .

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  41. We are Hundal and my family migrated from Hundal village near Sialkot.

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  42. It's an amazing information about the roots of the punjabi community. Had my father been alive today, he would have been thrilled to know so much about the land he belonged to.
    Simply a masterpiece.

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  43. Fantastic history of Punjab and Punjabi's.

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  44. You need to include after research about Malhotra and khanna. As I was told by my grandparents Malhotra, khanna and Kapoor were in places like Lahore, Bhera and Sialkot. In fact they used to intermarry only amongst these clans and kakkars/ Seth's are same and Malhotra and mehras are same.

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  45. What about the roots of KHATRI SONIs? This article is a real treasure trove....worth reading and rereading.
    Thanks

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  46. Well researched article. Please throw light on seths, which part of Punjab they belong to.

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  47. Dear sir, no mention of Tandons ?

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  48. Very informative...keep updating with your research

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  49. What an informative article.Get to know our roots which the present generation hardly have any idea.We all from India n across were ONE n hearts shall always remain so....plz dig on Bhallas n Sachdevas plz.thank you!!!

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  50. Wonderful to be a part of great ancestry....would love to know more

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  51. Very rare facts n relevant information..thx for sharing!!

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  52. Excellent reading, thanks

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  53. ...interesting but not very convincing and very very speculative reseach piece ineeed! The research only pertains to Wikipedia's created unathenticated uncorroborated articles only. That said, the article does point to the need for all peoples of the region to recognize their roots to Indus Civilization and Hindus as their real ancestors.

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  54. Sorry what is "Secular Sufism" ? Is that like saying "I'm a vegetarian but I like to eat lamb chops..."

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  55. Very good information well described keep up the good work.

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  56. Very informative...I would like to know about Soni khatri..

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  57. Very informative...I would like to know about Soni khatri..

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  58. Sir, can you throw some light on Khurana community?

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  59. Informative but not exhaustive. There is a group amongst Khatris known as'Dhai Ghari Khatris' comprising Kakars, Seths, Bahris, Malhotras. Would like to buy the book.

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  60. A very informative article. Bhatia as is well known originated from Jaisalmer.They migrated to West punjab I.e Dera Ismail Khan , Banno and other such towns in mid 16th.century after a drought crippled the entire region. Since then to the time of partition they remained there absorbing the culture dialect of the region.

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  61. The way you have gone about undertaking research on the Punjabi community will go a long way in helping the generations trace their roots. Salute to your efforts.

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  62. Very informative and I would be thankful to know more about my ancestral history as my parents migrated from Pakistan in 1946.Chandra pal sethi s/o late behari lal. Grand father sunder das sethi. I am presently in Lucknow

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  63. I am keen to realise and findout our true roots too. We are I believe from ancient AYODHYA.
    CHATTERJEES BANNERJEES MUKHERJEES GANGULIES BENGALI BRAHMINS .
    TAKEN TO EAST TO HELP BRITISH PEOPLE ESTABLISH TEMPLES IN NEW KOLKATA AS A CAPITAL. BENGOLIES NEEDED PUJARIES IS IT POSSIBLE

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  64. Sincere effort and research seems to have been made in writing the article.It is of much interest not only for Punjabis but for an ordinary Indian also.
    You must be knowing that a similar type of study was undertaken by KHATTRI SABHA.It will be of interest if both details tally or some modifications are needed.
    You have not mentioned NARULA.Sincerely hope your research reaches a logical and convincing end or at least provide solid base for further research. THANKS

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  65. I belong to Gorowara Hindu Arora clan and my grandparents migrated during Partition from D.I. Khan in NWFP. We have nearly all changed our surname to a more anglicised GROVER.

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  66. No mention of Puri clan, an important one as Khatris. My ancestors are from Pakistan and last known to me they are from Gharhtal, Sialkot. In case some can share the pics of more information. Like to share with my family

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    1. Will do Sir. The Puris are descendants of the ancient Paurava clan. Their ancestor Porus or Puru is known worldwide as the one who stopped Alexander. Please read my blog on the defeat of Alexander in the hands of Punjabis led by Porus.

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    2. From what I’d heard, Porus came from
      the Sabherwals

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  67. अच्छा लगा...इसे पढने मैं मजा आया और बहुत जानकारीपूढ़ं

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  68. There is no mention of Trehan's, Soni's & many other Casts. If you can throw some light on these, it will be a favour.

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  69. Highly informative. Based on deep research and wide reading. Thank you, Sir. V. C. Bhutani, Delhi

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  70. Very intrested history about punjabi but we lost our mother tongue. And we should try to revive Punjabi.

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  71. Great information.
    Hope it unites the younger generation.
    It's a great service.
    God bless ��

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  72. My father along with is his brothers and sisters and their familes came to India from Pind Dadan Khan, Distt Jhelum.
    My Grand father's name was Lala Dera Shah Marwah. I am keep to visit my ancestrol town. If anyone can help me to atleast share some photographs of Pind Dadan Khan.

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  73. Very informative;
    Please provide information on a famous clan, Bhalla or Bhola;
    Thanks
    Er Ashok Bhalla
    Canada

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  74. I am surprised to find such a phenomenon.i am very thankful for the writer as well as all the people who are writing their part of the knowledge and it's very informative.thanks for your efforts.

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  75. Our history has been written by historians who had myopic vision. They couldn't trace the roots of mankind beyond Indus valley civilization. For them people living in the Indus valley civilization were the oldest. But you have researched well and found their roots upto Rama and Krishna period.
    Great service.
    Keep it up

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  76. Well researched article. In bengali language V is missing and replaced by B. Example Vijay is Bijoy, Varun is Borun etc etc. Is there any connection between Bengali and Pali?

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  77. I know that a lot of effort must have gone in to associate our lineage to the locations mentioned, my father says we came from Jhang and then settled in Sahiwal later named as Montegumry and renamed Sahiwal after partition. We are Katyals gotra is Kushal if that helps, can you throw some light on our background. It will be interesting for my father to know who is 83 and belongs to the era which has gone through a world war, partition around 4 wars (3 with Pakistan and one with China) and now Covid19

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  78. I am sure a lot of effort and extensive research must have gone in to trace our lineage backwards. Truly appreciate the same. My farther says that we belong to Jhang and then shifted to Sahiwal which was later named as Montogumry and renamed Sahiwal after partition. We are Katyal’s and our gotra is Kushal we are Punjabi Khatris can you please throw some light on our background. It will really be interesting for my father who is 83 and belongs to an era which has seen a world war, a partition gone through 4 wars ( 3 with Pakistan and 1 with China) and now Covid19. A Man who is still working and refuses to retire and is raring to go to his office as soon as all this ends. Am sure he would love this information please do share if possible at earliest

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  79. Very informative. Would like more info on other Punjabi surnames.

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  80. Well researched writeup.But don't quite understand where we fit in. Tandon's from Lahore, before partition. Now living in all parts on India, bust mostly in Delhi.we grouped with Mehra's, Vohra's,Dhawan's talwara...so what about us?

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  81. Very informative article, thanks 😊.

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  82. Very informative article, thanks 😊.

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  83. It is an interesting read. Punjabis are a very vibrant community. Their passion is to conquer, as is represented by the scores of Medals issued to them during various wars with India's neighbours. They are a hard working community, and with their passion to achieve their goal/s with singular dedication, they have done marvellously well to establish themselves as leaders in various walks of life. The country and the society would ever remain indebted to them because if their self-less devotion to avocation they are into.

    The Punjabi community has earned international acclaim because of their self-less dedication.

    Lots of best wishes to them.

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  84. Quite informative and feel so connected..Congratulate the author for the efforts. Would appriciate if you could help in finding roots of Vij too...I know there are other requests too on different sir names. So please include Vij in the list. Also don't understand why hindutva is taken as offensive in the article???

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  85. Very good ! Keep thinking about such all d time ! Real is when d great Punjab is one undivided again !!!

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    1. Very Apt indeed. Yes it sure Will be gr8 to be undivided.

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    2. God willing ! ..it shall be so ! ! !

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    3. God willing ! ..it shall be so ! ! !

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    4. God willing ! ..it shall be so ! ! !

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  86. We are Hundal jatts from ancestral village Hundal near Sialkot.

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  87. What about babbars and Jolly castes of west punjab.

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  88. An eye opener ! Mind boggling information !!Every Punjabi and researcher should read it ! Thanks !

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  89. Brilliant article. Fantastic research. Very well written without any malice or prejudice. Wish more of our history was presented like this. Great work!!

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  90. Did not find any mention of Bhalla community, wld u be able to shed light on this pls? Nonetheless very informative, hope more and more gets documented so we don't loose our roots or our languages. Ty.

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  91. This can only be accomplished by a passionate researcher.Thank you for contributing to my knowledge and to the benefit of the Punjabi community.

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  92. Can you throw some light on the sagala origin...as sagala's are also known as sahgal's,sehgal, saigal.

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  93. Can you throw some light on Sagala aka sehgal,Sahgal, Saigal..as far as i have been informed Sagala clan originated from Jhang region..pls give your inputs.

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  94. Wonderful and rich history of Punjabis.

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  95. Would be nice if someone would share the history about the - Sood !!
    Thanks in advance

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  96. Extremely profound research.
    This should be an eye opener for all those who look to the Arabs to lay claim to their genealogy .....

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  97. Try the site "the Sikh scythians"

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  98. No mention of khatris like khanna, Tandon, seth,mehra, malhotra,

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  99. Good knowledge about our origin

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  100. Very much inspiring and motivating towards our roots.
    In between you have written Khukrains and under that few surnames are mentioned.
    What it really means.

    Can you put some light on Luthras where they are from.

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  101. Very informative article. Was wondering if you or others have more information on surname Rampal. I understand they were classIfied under Punjabi Saraswat Brahmins.

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  102. I didn't find names of porus and ashoka in this.

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  103. We all are Humanbeings, humanity is the real essence.who taught us that matters not the region boundary.place.One should be proud of rich cultural values.
    .

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  104. Interesting and very informative..kudos to the researcher for the excellent work...to me it's more of a humbling experience to learn that in the end we are all same human beings..being a sikh it still is an open question in my mind the real purpose of Guru Nanak establishing the sikh faith..if as has been propogated thru history it was to save mankind from dogmatic living...well life now is worst than what seems like in 1469..so where do we go from here

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  105. VERY INFORMATIVE AND AN EYE OPENER ARTICLE. LOT OF HARD WORK AND SINCETE EFFORTS ARE BEHIND THIS ARTICLE.

    NARINDER KUMAR BASSI
    BATHINDA PUNHAB

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  106. People living along the Sindhu river were called Hindu and the land was referred to Hindustan by the persians,there was no such thing as a Hindu religion, it was Sanatana Dharam. Punjabis were also practicing the same Sanatana Dharma.

    Excellent article ��

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  107. Very informative and nicely collected piece of work. We Sabharwals always take pride in
    in our lineage from porus. But it was great to know so many things before 326 BC. Thanks for the information. Sandeep Sabharwal.

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  108. Very informative and nicely collected piece of work. We Sabharwals always take pride in
    in our lineage from porus. But it was great to know so many things before 326 BC. Thanks for the information. Sandeep Sabharwal.

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  109. Very Informative article. I would like to know which part punjabi khatris Khannas clan belong to in Paunjab. My father told me that our forefathers areaare fromnfrom are nearby lahore . Pl. Give ur inputs

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  110. Vij ka bhi jikr nhi hua . Jo ki kshtriyo me 5 ghar me aati hai.... Unke sath ki wahi aur Behl ka hua , shesh vij ber and Sehgal reh gayi hai. Agar koi link hai toh bataye. Malhotra b 2.5 jati me aati hai uska be ullekh nhi mila

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  111. Interesting and informative article
    Made very deep and extensive work to write the article. I salute the authors to do this wonderful job

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  112. Interesting and informative article
    Made very deep and extensive work to write the article. I salute the authors to do this wonderful job

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  113. Sir, great piece of hard work,I sheet commitment. I wish if you could shed some light on Khurana community. Thanks

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  114. The article is an interesting read and worth sharing , I hope the facts presented are right n cross checked....as I would like that this information spreads and there be no prejudice

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  115. We are Bhalla,family migrated from lyallpur pakistan, any info about us?

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  116. We are Bhalla,family migrated from lyallpur pakistan, any info about us?

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  117. Interesting ae=rticle. I have a question for you. The Arya stayed in Punjab fro almost 1000 years and in that period Hinduism underwent two transformations and so to did the language. these transformations occurred due to interaction with the belief system and language of the Indus Valley Religion. language of the region which i will call proto Punjabi also underwent a transformation. My question is where did the center of knowledge reside that influenced Hinduism in so radical a manner. Later IVC thought system influenced Jain and Budh thought and even later it influenced Sikh Bakti and SUfi thought . For all this to happen there have to be centers of learning ( other than Taxila) could you assist me locate these centers of learning. Kindly respond at jarad_us@Yahoo.com , could you also identify prose associated with these centers of learning .

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  118. Very informative and well researched. Thank you for sharing it. Us it possible to get in touch with the author? I have some doubts that I'd be very grateful to clarify regarding my own family name. There are no history books I found that share the information I need.

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  119. A very informative article. we are also Punjabi khatri from N W Frontier province. Would love to know more about our 'punjabi'history. Interesting historical origin of various casts to ancient places. Thanks for valuable inputs

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  120. Sir
    Highly impressed to know about our glorified roots/history. Birth place of my father was Village Toba Distt Jhelum around 14 km from Katashraj temple as told by him to me. We are ' Chawla' Any research on Chawlas please share. Now it is time to pass on/share our roots to our new generation whi is totally unaware of it.

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  121. Rooh khush ho aap Ka artical pad k aaj tak jiss itihasss ko janane ki icha thi Vo puri hui m chahta hu is par or kaam kiya jae or jo iithihas abhi bhi kitabon m chuupa hua h use social media p Laya jae Taki humari Aane wali pushton ko humarre goravmayi ithiahas ka pta chle
    Kabil-e-tarif h Aap ka Kaam
    Bhut Bhut dhanywad

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  122. Do you have some information about origin of Kenya's.

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  123. Replies
    1. As far as my knowledge goes, Mehta is not a subcaste of Khatri but a title. Mehtas are historically revenue accountants and can be found in Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Guru Nanak's father is known as Mehta Kalu but he was from bedi clan of Khatris.

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  124. Please give me clarity regarding punia caste in Punjab

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    Replies
    1. Based on my research Punia are Jatts/jaats and found in North Rajasthan, South Haryana, and South Punjab. Most Punias are Hindus but there is a considerbale population of Sikh Punias also.

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  125. Very informative and well researched article. Any idea about Nangias?

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    Replies
    1. I have no real evidence but the name sounds related to the Nangarhar province in Afghanistan.

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  126. Proud to be a Punjabi Hindu :)

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    1. Lets keep it "Proud Punjabi". This is common heritage of Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh Pujabis. Note that natives of Punjab were Buddhist and Jain too.

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  127. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

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  128. My family name is Kakar/Kakkar and trace our history from Kakki-Nau in Jhang district and my grandparents used Jhangi dialect (which I have heard and remember well), My grandmother's family was Malhotra and were from Shorkot area. Our family moved to Amritsar and later to Haryana around partition time period, It will be great to associate with anyone who is from the area and get to know about the area, history, profession (farming, trading, civiel services etc).
    -Sam

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    1. This is great bit of information. Kakkars are descendents of ancient Kaikey state as mentioned in ancient scriptures. It is well known that it was located someshere in West Punjab. It appears as if your native place Kakki-Nau could be the site of the ancient Kaikey state. Thanks for sharing.

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